Background: Prepartum depression is common among pregnant women and has not been studied much in low and middle-income countries. Evidence shows that mental illnesses are prevalent in urban than in rural areas. The study objective was to determine the magnitude of prepartum depression, risk factors, and real-life experiences of depression among pregnant women. Method: A mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted. It included 262 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two public health facilities in urban low-income settlement Nairobi, Kenya. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with cut-off >13 was used to classify clinical depressive illness. Further, a focus group discussion was conducted with 20 women identified with depression. Univariable analysis with Odd's Ratio was used to test associations. Variables with a p<0.05 in multivariable regression were considered significant. Result: Out of the 262 women, 33.6% were found to have clinical depression as indicated by EPDS score of >13. Women's gestational age was statistically significantly associated with prepartum depression [OR 4.27 (95% C.I. 2.08 - 8.79), p < 0.001]. Income level ≤ 5000 KES was statistically significantly associated with prepartum depression [OR 3.64 (95% C.I.1.25 -10.60), p=0.018]. Further, thematic analysis of qualitative indicated that poverty, lack of social support, domestic violence, and unfriendly health care were major contributors to prepartum depression. Conclusion: Significant numbers of pregnant women were found to experience depression. This prevalence rate indicates a high disease burden of women who live with depression, which is not diagnosed because screening of depression is not done in primary health care centers. This study calls for a need and consideration for screening for perinatal depression in primary health care facilities, mainly in resource-poor areas. Interventions targeting means of resolving conflicts in families are highly needed. Such steps would help achieve key sustainable development goals where maternal and child health remains key priority.
- Risk factors