Risk Factors Associated with Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid in an Outbreak Setting of Lyari Town Karachi, Pakistan

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Abstract

Typhoid fever is endemic in Pakistan, with high annual incidence rates. An outbreak of extensively drug-resistant typhoid fever that first started in the Hyderabad district of Sindh province in November 2016 immediately spread to the whole province. We conducted an age-matched case–control study to assess the risk factors of typhoid fever in an outbreak setting of Lyari Town, Karachi. We enrolled 82 patients with blood culture-confirmed Salmonella typhi between August 2019 to December 2019, 82 age-matched hospital and 164 age-matched community control subjects. In a matched conditional logistic regression model, consumption of meals outside the home more than once per month was associated significantly with developing culture-confirmed typhoid fever compared with no consumption of food outside the home (odds ratio, 4.11). Hygiene of the environment in which food is prepared, practices of adult food handlers, access to clean water, and food legislation play significant roles in the spread of typhoid fever.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1379-1383
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume106
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

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