Rodent models of depression: learned helplessness induced in mice.

H. Anisman, Z. Merali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Uncontrollable stressors induce a variety of behavioral disturbances that are in many ways reminiscent of the symptoms that characterize clinical depression. These deficits are evident across a range of species, including mice. Given the increasing focus on genetic techniques involving mice to identify the mechanisms subserving these behavioral disturbances (e.g., recombinant, knockout, and transgenic strains), it is of particular interest to provide a detailed description of the method to induce behavioral deficits in response to uncontrollable stressors. This unit describes the procedure used to assess the effects of controllable and uncontrollable shock on subsequent shock escape performance in mice using an escape-delay procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)Unit 8.10C
JournalCurrent Protocols in Neuroscience
VolumeChapter 8
Publication statusPublished - May 2001
Externally publishedYes


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