Background and aims: Primary aim was to assess the safety of SGLT2-i in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) in a real-life scenario during Ramadan by finding the frequency and severity of hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events, dehydration, and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Secondary aim was to assess changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight and creatinine levels. Methods: This prospective, observational, controlled cohort study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March 15 to June 30, 2021. Participants were over 21 years of age, on stable doses of SGLT2-I, which was started at least 2 months before Ramadan. Endpoint assessments were done 1 month before and within 6 weeks after Ramadan. Results: Of 102 participants enrolled, 82 completed the study. Most (52%) were males, with mean age 52.2 ± 9.5 years and average duration of T2D 11.2 ± 6.5 years. 63% were on Empagliflozin (mean dose; 14.8 ± 7.2 mg/day) whereas 37% were on Dapagliflozin (mean dose; 8.2 ± 2.7 mg/day). Six (7.3%) documented symptoms of hypoglycemia. However, no episode of severe hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, dehydration, DKA, hospitalization or discontinuation of SGLT2i was reported. HbA1c changes were (7.7 ± 1.2% from 7.9 ± 2.3%, p 0.34), weight (78.4 ± 12.9 kgs from 78.9 ± 13.3, p 0.23) and eGFR (87.8 ± 27.9 from 94.3 ± 37.6, p < 0.001). The reasons of study participants drop outs were: six did not keep any fasts; four discontinued study participation for personal reasons; three were out of city and missed post Ramadan follow-up, two protocol violation and five could not be contacted for post-Ramadan follow up during the third wave of COVID-19. Conclusion: Results showed the safety of SGLT2i agents during Ramadan in the Pakistani population recommending it as a treatment option in adults with T2D, without any additional adverse events.
- Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-i)
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus