Salmonella infections in The Gambia, 2005-2015

Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Saffiatou Darboe, Helen Nabwera, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Usman N. Ikumapayi, Ousman Secka, Modupeh Betts, Richard Bradbury, Rita Wegmüller, Bolarinde Lawal, Debasish Saha, M. Jahangir Hossain, Andrew M. Prentice, Beate Kampmann, Suzanne Anderson, Umberto Dalessandro, Martin Antonio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Background. There are large data gaps in the epidemiology of diseases caused by Salmonella enterica in West Africa. Regional surveillance of Salmonella infections is necessary, especially with the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant clones. Methods. Data on Salmonella isolated from various clinical specimens from patients from across The Gambia were collected and analyzed retrospectively from 2005 to April 2015. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of Salmonella isolates was performed by disk diffusion method. Serotyping and serogrouping of Salmonella isolates was performed using standard microbiology techniques. Results. Two hundred three Salmonella isolates were isolated from 190 patients: 52% (106/203) from blood and 39% (79/203) from stool specimens. Salmonella was also isolated from urine, aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, wounds, and abscesses. The prevalence of Salmonella in blood cultures was 0.8% (106/13 905). Of the serotyped salmonellae, 14% (21/152) were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, whereas 86% (131/152) were serovars other than Typhi (nontyphoidal Salmonella). Of the 102 typed NTS isolates, 40% (41) were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 10% (10) were Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and 3% (3) were Salmonella enterica serovar Arizonae. Overall, 70% (142/203) of the salmonellae were pansusceptible. Multidrug resistance was found in 4% (9/203) of the isolates, 3 of which were Salmonella Enteritidis. Conclusions. Salmonellae are associated with a wide spectrum of invasive and noninvasive infections across all ages in The Gambia. There is evidence of multidrug resistance in salmonellae that warrants vigilant monitoring and surveillance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S354-S362
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi
  • invasive Salmonella disease
  • multidrug resistance
  • nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica


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