Importance: Criterion-standard specimens for tuberculosis diagnosis in young children, gastric aspirate (GA) and induced sputum, are invasive and rarely collected in resource-limited settings. A far less invasive approach to tuberculosis diagnostic testing in children younger than 5 years as sensitive as current reference standards is important to identify. Objective: To characterize the sensitivity of preferably minimally invasive specimen and assay combinations relative to maximum observed yield from all specimens and assays combined. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cross-sectional diagnostic study, the reference standard was a panel of up to 2 samples of each of 6 specimen types tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by Xpert MTB/RIF assay and mycobacteria growth indicator tube culture. Multiple different combinations of specimens and tests were evaluated as index tests. A consecutive series of children was recruited from inpatient and outpatient settings in Kisumu County, Kenya, between October 2013 and August 2015. Participants were children younger than 5 years who had symptoms of tuberculosis (unexplained cough, fever, malnutrition) and parenchymal abnormality on chest radiography or who had cervical lymphadenopathy. Children with 1 or more evaluable specimen for 4 or more primary study specimen types were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from February 2015 to October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative and incremental diagnostic yield of combinations of specimen types and tests relative to the maximum observed yield. Results: Of the 300 enrolled children, the median (interquartile range) age was 2.0 (1.0-3.6) years, and 151 (50.3%) were female. A total of 294 met criteria for analysis. Of 31 participants with confirmed tuberculosis (maximum observed yield), 24 (sensitivity, 77%; interdecile range, 68%-87%) had positive results on up to 2 GA samples and 20 (sensitivity, 64%; interdecile range, 53%-76%) had positive test results on up to 2 induced sputum samples. The yields of 2 nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples (23 of 31 [sensitivity, 74%; interdecile range, 64%-84%]), of 1 NPA sample and 1 stool sample (22 of 31 [sensitivity, 71%; interdecile range, 60%-81%]), or of 1 NPA sample and 1 urine sample (21.5 of 31 [sensitivity, 69%; interdecile range, 58%-80%]) were similar to reference-standard specimens. Combining up to 2 each of GA and NPA samples had an average yield of 90% (28 of 31). Conclusions and Relevance: NPA, in duplicate or in combination with stool or urine specimens, was readily obtainable and had diagnostic yield comparable with reference-standard specimens. This combination could improve tuberculosis diagnosis among children in resource-limited settings. Combining GA and NPA had greater yield than that of the current reference standards and may be useful in certain clinical and research settings..