Biomass fuel burning leads to high levels of suspended particulate matter and hazardous chemicals in the indoor environment in countries where it is in common use, contributing significantly to indoor air pollution (IAP). A situational analysis of household energy and biomass use and associated health effects of IAP was conducted by reviewing published and unpublished literature about the situation in Pakistan. In addition to attempt to quantify the burden of ill health due to IAP, this paper also appraises the mitigation measures undertaken to avert the problem in Pakistan. It appeared that very few original studies have been conducted, mainly relating to women's health and birth outcome. Moreover, only small scale efforts have been made to improve the situation of IAP. There is great need of policies and actions to control the health hazards in Pakistan.