Social environment and depression among pregnant women in rural areas of Sind, Pakistan

Aysha Zahidie, Ambreen Kazi, Zafar Fatmi, Muhammad Tufail Bhatti, Sayeda Dureshahwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To evaluate the relative power of social relations and social conditions in predicting depression using (CES-D scale) among rural pregnant women belonging to Sind, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted from January 2004 tp December 2004. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. During quantitative phase a total of 375 rural pregnant women were inquired about social conditions, social relations and pregnancy related concerns through a questionnaire based form. Variables were given scores when it applied to a situation of a pregnant woman. Concurrently, in a blind set-up, translated and validated Depression Scale (CES-D) was administered. In multivariate linear regression analysis, relation between scores of social relations and social condition variables with scores of CES-D scale were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of depression among rural pregnant women is high (62%).Social conditions as compared to social relations are more important determinants for depression among rural pregnant women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of depression in rural areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1183-1189
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011


  • Depression scale (CES-D)
  • Multivariate linear regression analysis
  • Pakistan
  • Pregnancy
  • Sind
  • Social conditions


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