Spatial analyses of immune cell infiltration in cancer: current methods and future directions. A report of the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group on Breast Cancer

David B. Page, Glenn Broeckx, Chowdhury Arif Jahangir, Sara Verbandt, Rajarsi R. Gupta, Jeppe Thagaard, Reena Khiroya, Zuzana Kos, Khalid Abduljabbar, Gabriela Acosta Haab, Balazs Acs, Guray Akturk, Jonas S. Almeida, Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Farid Azmoudeh-Ardalan, Sunil Badve, Nurkhairul Bariyah Baharun, Enrique R. Bellolio, Vydehi Bheemaraju, Kim R.M. BlenmanLuciana Botinelly Mendonça Fujimoto, Najat Bouchmaa, Octavio Burgues, Maggie Chon U. Cheang, Francesco Ciompi, Lee A.D. Cooper, An Coosemans, Germán Corredor, Flavio Luis Dantas Portela, Frederik Deman, Sandra Demaria, Sarah N. Dudgeon, Mahmoud Elghazawy, Scott Ely, Claudio Fernandez-Martín, Susan Fineberg, Stephen B. Fox, William M. Gallagher, Jennifer M. Giltnane, Sacha Gnjatic, Paula I. Gonzalez-Ericsson, Anita Grigoriadis, Niels Halama, Matthew G. Hanna, Aparna Harbhajanka, Alexandros Hardas, Steven N. Hart, Johan Hartman, Stephen Hewitt, Akira I. Hida, Hugo M. Horlings, Zaheed Husain, Evangelos Hytopoulos, Sheeba Irshad, Emiel A.M. Janssen, Mohamed Kahila, Tatsuki R. Kataoka, Kosuke Kawaguchi, Durga Kharidehal, Andrey I. Khramtsov, Umay Kiraz, Pawan Kirtani, Liudmila L. Kodach, Konstanty Korski, Anikó Kovács, Anne Vibeke Laenkholm, Corinna Lang-Schwarz, Denis Larsimont, Jochen K. Lennerz, Marvin Lerousseau, Xiaoxian Li, Amy Ly, Anant Madabhushi, Sai K. Maley, Vidya Manur Narasimhamurthy, Douglas K. Marks, Elizabeth S. McDonald, Ravi Mehrotra, Stefan Michiels, Fayyaz ul Amir Afsar Minhas, Shachi Mittal, David A. Moore, Shamim Mushtaq, Hussain Nighat, Thomas Papathomas, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Rashindrie D. Perera, Christopher J. Pinard, Juan Carlos Pinto-Cardenas, Giancarlo Pruneri, Lajos Pusztai, Arman Rahman, Nasir Mahmood Rajpoot, Bernardo Leon Rapoport, Tilman T. Rau, Jorge S. Reis-Filho, Joana M. Ribeiro, David Rimm, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Joel Saltz, Shahin Sayed, Kalliopi P. Siziopikou, Christos Sotiriou, Albrecht Stenzinger, Maher A. Sughayer, Daniel Sur, Fraser Symmans, Sunao Tanaka, Timothy Taxter, Sabine Tejpar, Jonas Teuwen, E. Aubrey Thompson, Trine Tramm, William T. Tran, Jeroen van der Laak, Paul J. van Diest, Gregory E. Verghese, Giuseppe Viale, Michael Vieth, Noorul Wahab, Thomas Walter, Yannick Waumans, Hannah Y. Wen, Wentao Yang, Yinyin Yuan, Sylvia Adams, John Mark Seaverns Bartlett, Sibylle Loibl, Carsten Denkert, Peter Savas, Sherene Loi, Roberto Salgado, Elisabeth Specht Stovgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Modern histologic imaging platforms coupled with machine learning methods have provided new opportunities to map the spatial distribution of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, there exists no standardized method for describing or analyzing spatial immune cell data, and most reported spatial analyses are rudimentary. In this review, we provide an overview of two approaches for reporting and analyzing spatial data (raster versus vector-based). We then provide a compendium of spatial immune cell metrics that have been reported in the literature, summarizing prognostic associations in the context of a variety of cancers. We conclude by discussing two well-described clinical biomarkers, the breast cancer stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes score and the colon cancer Immunoscore, and describe investigative opportunities to improve clinical utility of these spatial biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-532
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Pathology
Volume260
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

Keywords

  • Immunoscore
  • TIL
  • multispectral immunofluorescence
  • sTIL score
  • spatial heterogeneity
  • spatial statistics
  • tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

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