Several centers are now performing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) but the availability is still limited due to high cost and the need for multi-disciplinary team and an advanced laboratory support. Special issues including compatible donor availability, potential for alternate donor programs, differences in pattern of disease, pre-HSCT general status particularly for patients with BM failure, high sero-positivity for CMV, Hepatitis B and C infection and specific observations about GVHD with its relation to genetically homogeneous community are discussed. A total of 17 HSCT programs (performing five or more HSCTs annually) exist in nine countries of the EM region. Only six programs are currently reporting to EBMT or IBMTR. A total of 7617 HSCTs including 5701 allogeneic HSCTs have been performed. Due to low HSCT team density (1.5583 teams/10 million inhabitants versus 14.4333 in Europe) and very low HSCT team distribution (0.2729 teams/10,000 sq km area versus <1 to 6 teams in Europe) only 70.8% of total population has access to such a program in EM region. GNI/capita had no clear association with low HSCT activity; however improvement in infrastructure and establishment of EM regional HSCT registry need prioritization.