Stop-bang questionnaire for screening obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among hypertensive patients in Kenya

Salim Abdallah Salim, Jasmit Shah, Jumaa Bwika, Sayed K. Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a type of breathing problem during sleep caused by the blockage of the upper airway, which can cause cessation of airflow. There is limited research on the prevalence of OSA in hypertensive patients in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study aimed to describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of OSA among hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred and fifty-one hypertensive patients were screened for OSA risk using the STOP-Bang questionnaire (SBQ). Patients with a SBQ score of ≥ 4 were categorized as high risk for OSA. Descriptive statistics were employed to describe both categorical and continuous variables and binary logistic regression to assess factors associated with the high risk of OSA. Results: The study reported that 78.5% of the participants had high-risk OSA. The median age and body mass index (BMI) were 57.0 years (IQR: 50.0–64.0) and 28.3 kg/m2, respectively. Age, neck circumference, gender, and BMI were significantly higher in the high-risk OSA group as compared to the low-risk group. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of screening hypertensive patients for OSA using the SBQ in clinical settings, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare providers can use patient characteristics such as age, gender, neck circumference, and BMI to identify those at greater risk of developing OSA. Further research could focus on developing effective OSA prevention and treatment interventions in hypertensive patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number321
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Hypertension
  • OSA
  • STOP-Bang
  • Screening
  • Sleep disorder
  • Sub-saharan Africa


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