Study on avian diversity of thal desert (district Jhang), Punjab, Pakistan

Shahid Mahboob, Zaib-U-Nisa, H. F. Alkahem al-Balawi, Fahad Al-Misned, Z. Ahmad, S. Sultana

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Thal Game Reserve area of district Jhang was surveyed from December, 2008 to November, 2009 on the monthly site visit basis to study the population of wild bird species of the area. The survey method included on site direct observations with the naked eye in the morning and evening. Two transects i.e. one of 10 km in length and 500 m in width for larger birds, whereas second of 10 km in length and 200 m in width for smaller birds were studied. Seventy six plant species belonging to twenty five families were recorded from the area. All these plant species supported the population of avifauna directly or indirectly by providing food, water, shelter, roosting or parching. We recorded 55 bird species belonging to 42 genera from 28 families representing 13 orders from the area. Among these species 13 bird species were migratory and winter visitor, 5 migratory but summer breeder, 1 ordinary migrant and 36 residents which were found throughout the year. A total of 2550219 birds was estimated in the Thal Game Reserve area. The maximum population of birds was estimated during the month of December, 2008 (11.13%) and January, 2009 (10.57%) whereas the minimum population of birds was estimated during April (4.30%), May (5.82%) and June, 2009 (6.7%). The maximum diversity in the avifauna of Thal desert was found during the summer (D=0. 11) and autumn (D= 0.11) seasons while minimum during spring (D=0.14) season. Illegal hunting, livestock grazing, tree and bush cutting for fuel wood collection, shortage of food and water during summer and vegetation exploitation were recorded the major threats to wild fauna of the area. It was concluded that there is an urgent need to safeguard the very fragile ecosystem and overall biodiversity of Thal desert through management planning of the area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalLife Science Journal
Issue numberSPL.ISSUE11
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Bird
  • Game reserve
  • Hunting
  • Migratory
  • Species


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