Surveillance of heavy metals in maize grown with wastewater and their impacts on animal health in peri-urban areas of multan, Pakistan

Zafar Iqbal, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Mazhar Ayyaz, Shafaqat Ali, Abid Mahmood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The study was conducted in peri-urban areas of Multan, Pakistan for the assessment of heavy metals risk on animal health by the consumption of maize as fodder grown with different types of wastewater/water and its source apportionment. Total 120 samples (wastewater, soil, raw milk, and maize plants) from six sites were collected and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel and lead contents by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The maize plants grown with industrial effluents were highly contaminated and exhibited the highest carcinogenic health risk and the lowest at the canal water irrigation site. The Total Target Health Quotient (TTHQ) values ranged between 27.44 and 80.34 at wastewater, 2.32 and 5.0 at canal water and 3.68 and 7.5 at tube well water irrigation site. The animal population at all studied sites were found expose to carcinogenic health risks. The multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the wastewater/water containing heavy metals and contaminated soil were common sources of maize plants contamination. The consumption of contaminated maize as fodder by lactating animals resulted in milk contamination which indicated that the application of wastewater/water containing heavy metals was causing food chain contamination. The untreated wastewater is not suitable to grow maize to use as fodder for animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-328
Number of pages8
JournalPakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fodder
  • Health risk
  • Irrigation
  • Maize plants
  • TTHQ
  • Wastewater

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