In the last two decades there has been an increase on task and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies that explore the brain's functional changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear as to whether the brain's functional changes during the resting state are sensitive to the same brain regions during task fMRI. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature search of task and resting-state fMRI studies that investigated brain pathological changes in first-episode schizophrenia (Fleischhacker et al.). Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria; seven were resting state fMRI studies with 371 FES patients and 363 healthy controls and twelve were task fMRI studies with 235 FES patients and 291 healthy controls. We found overlapping task and resting-state fMRI abnormalities in the prefrontal regions, including the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, the orbital frontal cortex and the temporal lobe, especially in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG). The findings of this systematic review support the frontotemporal hypothesis of schizophrenia, and the disruption in prefrontal and STG might represent the pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder at a relatively early stage.
- Cognitive task
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging
- Prefrontal cortex
- Temporal lobe