Teaching Clinical Skills Using Online Modality through Modified Peyton’s Framework: An Experience from a Medical University in Pakistan

Sana Saeed, Urooj Kashif, Samar Zaki, Khalid Samad, Muhammad Zuhair Yousuf, Mahanoor Raza, Shahjahan Jabbar, Unab I. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Medical institutions worldwide faced an unprecedented situation during COVID-19 of identifying alternative strategies to sustain the continuum of learning process. This led to several innovations in the traditional medical curriculum. This study explored the effectiveness and feasibility of using the Peyton’s framework modified for a virtual platform (Microsoft Teams) for teaching clinical skills to first and second-year medical students at The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: In 2020-2021, the modified Peyton’s framework was integrated in the clinical skills (CS) curriculum for all first-and second-year students (N=200). For evaluation, a mixed-method design was used, with pre-and post-session questionnaires. Students’ satisfaction was obtained through the standard session evaluation tool of the university. For the qualitative arm, to explore the instructors’ experiences, purposive sampling was used (n=8) and a focused group discussion (FGD) was conducted. Finally, performance of the students at the end of year summative Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was compared with the students of previous year. Quantitative data were analysed using STATA® version 15.1, using paired t-test to compare the differences in OSCE scores in selected CS stations. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant for all tests. The FGD was transcribed and analysed through manual content analysis. Results: Nine clinical skills (that included history and examination skills) were taught using the virtual platform. There was a significant improvement in post-session questionnaires in seven of these skills (P<0.01). Session evaluations showed that most students were satisfied with the learning experience. The instructors showed that the online teaching offered a promising platform for teaching history taking skills. The OSCE scores showed mixed results, with significant improvement in two out of four repeated stations by using paired t-test [abdominal exam (87.33±8.99, <0.001); and precordial examination (88.45±8.36, 0.001)]. Conclusions: Modifying Peyton’s framework to a virtual platform allowed us to sustain the continuum of clinical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results support the use of a blended learning environment for teaching clinical skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-23
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Clinical skills
  • Covid-19
  • Medical students
  • Teaching


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