Ten things to know about ten cardiovascular disease risk factors

Harold E. Bays, Pam R. Taub, Elizabeth Epstein, Erin D. Michos, Richard A. Ferraro, Alison L. Bailey, Heval M. Kelli, Keith C. Ferdinand, Melvin R. Echols, Howard Weintraub, John Bostrom, Heather M. Johnson, Kara K. Hoppe, Michael D. Shapiro, Charles A. German, Salim S. Virani, Aliza Hussain, Christie M. Ballantyne, Ali M. Agha, Peter P. Toth

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

96 Citations (Scopus)


Given rapid advancements in medical science, it is often challenging for the busy clinician to remain up-to-date on the fundamental and multifaceted aspects of preventive cardiology and maintain awareness of the latest guidelines applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The “American Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) Top Ten CVD Risk Factors 2021 Update” is a summary document (updated yearly) regarding CVD risk factors. This “ASPC Top Ten CVD Risk Factors 2021 Update” summary document reflects the perspective of the section authors regarding ten things to know about ten sentinel CVD risk factors. It also includes quick access to sentinel references (applicable guidelines and select reviews) for each CVD risk factor section. The ten CVD risk factors include unhealthful nutrition, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, obesity, considerations of select populations (older age, race/ethnicity, and sex differences), thrombosis/smoking, kidney dysfunction and genetics/familial hypercholesterolemia. For the individual patient, other CVD risk factors may be relevant, beyond the CVD risk factors discussed here. However, it is the intent of the “ASPC Top Ten CVD Risk Factors 2021 Update” to provide a succinct overview of things to know about ten common CVD risk factors applicable to preventive cardiology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100149
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Adiposopathy
  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors
  • Diabetes
  • Genetics/familial hypercholesterolemia
  • Glucose
  • Kidneys
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Preventive cardiology
  • Sex
  • Smoking
  • lipids
  • thrombosis


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