The application of virtual reality and augmented reality in dentistry - a literature review

Leelan Kanwal, Munnal Gulzar, Wafa Idrees, Fizzah Ikram, Rashna Hoshang Sukhia, Mubassar Fida

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In recent times, dentistry has seen significant technological advancements that have transformed various specialized areas within the field. Developed into applications for mobile devices, augmented reality (AR) seamlessly merges digital components with the physical world, enhancing both realms while maintaining their individual separateness. On the other hand, virtual reality (VR) relies on advanced, tailored software to visualize a digital 3D environment stimulating the operator's senses through computer generated sensations and feedback. The current advances use the application of VR, haptic simulators, the use of an AI algorithm and many more that provides new opportunities for smart learning and enhance the teaching environment. As this technology continues to evolve, it is poised to become even more remarkable, enabling specialists to potentially visualize both soft and hard tissues within the patient's body for effective treatment planning. This literature aims to present the newest advancements and ongoing development of AR and VR in dentistry and medicine. It highlights their diverse applications while identifying areas needing further research for effective integration into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S126-S131
JournalJPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number4 4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • Augmented Reality, Haptic Technology, Virtual Reality, Computers, Dentistry, Handheld, Algorithms, Sensation, Artificial Intelligence, Augmented reality, Dental education, Endodontics, Implantology, Oral and maxillofacial surgery.


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