The changing context of hepatitis D

Mario Rizzetto, Saeed Hamid, Franco Negro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)


The global epidemiology of hepatitis D is changing with the widespread implementation of vaccination against hepatitis B. In high-income countries that achieved optimal control of HBV, the epidemiology of hepatitis D is dual, consisting of an ageing cohort of domestic patients with advanced liver fibrosis who represent the end stage of the natural history of HDV, and of a younger generation of immigrants from endemic countries who account for the majority of new infections. As observed in Europe in the 1980s, the distinctive clinical characteristic of chronic hepatitis D in endemic countries is the accelerated progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite some recent progress, the therapeutic management of HDV remains unsatisfactory, as most patients are not cured of HDV with currently available medicines. This review article describes the current epidemiology and clinical features of chronic hepatitis D, based on the literature published in the last 10 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1200-1211
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Hepatology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • antiviral therapy
  • cirrhosis
  • hepatitis D
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • viral hepatitis epidemiology


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