Noninfectious pulmonary complications (NIPC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), cause significant morbidity and mortality, but their impact on health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs is unknown. This longitudinal retrospective study quantified the economic burden of NIPC and BOS in alloHSCT patients using commercial claims data from the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus database. Study patients were aged 0 to 64 years and underwent alloHSCT between 1 January 2006 and 30 September 2018, and were observable 12 months before and up to 5 years after index alloHSCT. NIPC patients were identified using International Classification of Disease (ICD) diagnosis codes. Outcomes were mean per patient HRU (inpatient admissions, outpatient office, hospital visits, and prescription medications) and costs paid by insurers in each post-transplant year. Among 2162 alloHSCT patients, 254 developed NIPCs, and 155 were propensity score (PS)-matched to non-NIPC patients. The year following transplantation, NIPC patients had significantly higher inpatient admission rates (3.8 6 3.2 vs non-NIPC: 2.6 6 2.4; P, .001) and higher total costs ($567 870 vs $412 400; P 5 .07), reflecting higher costs for inpatient admissions ($452 475 vs $300 202; P 5 .06). Among those observable for more years, costs remained higher for NIPC patients, reflecting significantly higher inpatient admission rates in the first 3 years following transplant. Subanalysis of patients with diagnoses likely reflective of BOS were consistent with these findings. AlloHSCT patients who developed NIPC had higher health care resource utilization and incurred higher costs compared with alloHSCT patients who did not develop NIPC following transplant.