The effect of technology on the caring attributes of an international sample of nurses

D. Arthur, S. Pang, T. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This paper commences by refining the psychometric characteristics of a quantitative instrument, which was developed to examine the caring attributes of an international sample of 1957 nurses working in 11 countries. Using factor analysis to support the construct validity, and removing weak items, the original 60 caring items were reduced to a 31 item global caring scale which revealed the sub-scales: 'caring communication'; 'caring involvement'; 'caring advocacy'; and 'learning to care'. The sub-scales were internally consistent and revealed generally high correlation coefficients. The subjects also responded to a scale, which was designed to measure degree of technological influence and provide a score for each respondent to reflect how highly they were influenced by technology in the work units of their hospital. The sample was then divided into three equal groups to reflect high, medium and low technological influence. The caring attribute scores then became the dependent variable by which the degree of technology was compared. The group with the lowest technological influence recorded the lowest mean score for caring while the group with the highest technological influence recorded the highest mean score for caring. A significant difference between the group with lowest and highest technological influence (F = 6.84, p < 0.001) was noted. This also applied to the 'caring communication' and 'caring involvement' sub-scales. For 'caring advocacy' the lowest technology group recorded the highest caring mean which was found to be significantly different to both mean scores for medium and highest technology groups (F = 7.15, p < 0.001). These results are discussed in the light of the international sample and suggestions for future research are raised.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2001
Externally publishedYes


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