The incidences and prevalence of histoplasmosis

Maryam Ahmed, Zara Borkowski, Sneha Reddy, Reena Shah, Salim Surani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Histoplasmosis Capsulatum causes Histoplasmosis, and the infection is acquired through inhalation of airborne spores from contaminated soil or bird or bat droppings. The disease can spread to systemic organs and lead to hospitalization in severe cases. The disease is globally distributed, although some regions are hyper-endemic while others are considered non-endemic regions. The incidence and prevalence of histoplasmosis vary depending on the geographical location. The incidence ranges between 0.1 to 1 case per 100,000 people annually in temperate climates and between 10 and 100 cases per 100,000 in the humid tropics, and more than 100 cases per 100,000 people among the groups that are areas considered to be high risk. Global annual prevalence is estimated at 100,000, and about 50% of the world lives in endemic areas. In American continents, the disease is endemic in Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, the Great Lakes, and Central and South America. In the USA, the incidence is approximately 2.5 cases per 100,000 population and about 3.8 cases per population of 100,000 people in Minnesota. In Canada, the incidence is estimated 0.14 cases per 100,000 people. In Africa, the disease is more prevalent in West, South, and East Africa, and the positivity rate of the disease is between 0 to 35%. Europe is considered a non-endemic region, although few cases are reported in Spain, France, Italy, and Germany. In comparison to these European countries, the disease is more prevalent in Asia, China, India, and Thailand. Factors influencing Incidence and Prevalence include immunosuppressants, especially HIV/AIDS, age, and environmental factors.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHistoplasmosis
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Diagnosis to Treatment
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9798891132283
ISBN (Print)9798891131293
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2023


  • Environmental factors
  • Fungal infection
  • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence


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