The outcomes of a mobile just-in-time-learning intervention for teaching bioethics in Pakistan

Azra Naseem, Sameer Nizamuddin, Kulsoom Ghias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: The study aimed to test the effectiveness and the feasibility of a mobile just-in-time-learning (m-JiTL) approach for teaching bioethics at a university in Pakistan. Over four months, a mobile app (EthAKUL) was used to enhance ethical reasoning among practising nurses, trainee physicians, and medical and nursing students utilising the m-JiTL approach. Participants used EthAKUL to access bioethics modules and participate in asynchronous discussions. Methods: A mixed methods design was adopted. Pre- and post-knowledge tests were used to assess changes in participants' knowledge of bioethics concepts, while pre- and post-surveys were used to assess changes in participants' attitudes towards m-learning. After the intervention, focus group discussions with the participants were held. Analysis of the discussion posts and meeting notes was conducted. Results: The learners had a favourable attitude toward using mobile devices for learning purposes at the start of the intervention, and the score remained positive afterwards. Bioethics knowledge test scores improved at the end of the intervention, with medical students experiencing the greatest improvement. However, because of the high drop-out rate and lack of participation after the initial phase, it is unclear whether the increase in score or positive attitude is the result of the intervention, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the intervention's success. Conclusions: EthAKUL is the first of its kind app for teaching bioethics, and the study has offered important insights into adopting new pedagogies and technologies for bioethics teaching. It has also identified issues with the design of the app and m-JiTL pedagogy that must be addressed before curriculum-wide adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number674
JournalBMC Medical Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Bioethics
  • Just-in-time-learning
  • Mobile application
  • m-learning


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