The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: A resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia

Danish Saleheen, Moazzam Zaidi, Asif Rasheed, Usman Ahmad, Abdul Hakeem, Muhammed Murtaza, Waleed Kayani, Azhar Faruqui, Assadullah Kundi, Khan Shah Zaman, Zia Yaqoob, Liaquat Ali Cheema, Abdus Samad, Syed Zahed Rasheed, Nadeem Hayat Mallick, Muhammad Azhar, Rashid Jooma, Ali Raza Gardezi, Nazir Memon, Abdul GhaffarFazal-Ur-Rehman, Nadir Khan, Nabi Shah, Asad Ali Shah, Maria Samuel, Farina Hanif, Madiha Yameen, Sobia Naz, Aisha Sultana, Aisha Nazir, Shehzad Raza, Muhammad Shazad, Sana Nasim, Muhammad Ahsan Javed, Syed Saadat Ali, Mehmood Jafree, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Muhammad Salman Daood, Altaf Hussain, Nadeem Sarwar, Ayeesha Kamal, Panos Deloukas, Muhammad Ishaq, Philippe Frossard, John Danesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30-80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-338
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Case-control study
  • MI
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Pakistan
  • Risk factors
  • South Asia


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