Objective: To focus mainly on the role of proto-oncogene Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras) and tumour-suppressor gene p53 which are among the most commonly mutated genes in biliary tract carcinomas. Methods: The systematic review comprised research articles published between 2002 and 2019 on PubMed and Google Scholar databases which were searched using the terms TP53 , K-Ras , mutation , biliary tract carcinoma , cholangiocarcinoma , and murine model . Repetitions, duplicates and irrelevant articles were excluded. No data was retrieved from posters, presentations and symposiums, and experiments involving bile aspirations were also excluded. Results: Of the 72 articles reviewed, 11(15.3%) were included. Of them, 3(27.3%) studies, conducted in China, Japan and Taiwan, reported a positive correlation between K-Ras mutation and biliary tract carcinoma. Only 1(9%) study, conducted in China, showed the sole correlation between p53 inactivation and biliary tract carcinoma. Also, 4(36.4%) studies, conducted in China, Japan and Europe, showed a positive association of both K-Ras mutation and p53 inactivation with biliary tract carcinoma. Conclusion:K-Ras and p53 mutation both contribute to biliary tract carcinoma. K-Ras mutation, however, has a much higher frequency compared to p53 inactivation in such cancers.
- Biliary tract carcinoma
- Murine models. (JPMA 71: 2378; 2021)