The role of simulators in improving vitreoretinal surgery training - A systematic review

Taha Muneer Ahmed, Muhammad Abdul, Rehman Siddiqui

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To conduct an appraisal of current evidence regarding the effectiveness of EyeSi®-based training of vitreoretinal surgery. Methods: The systematic review was conducted in July 2020, and comprised literature search on Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase for articles regarding simulation training in vitreoretinal surgery. The shortlisted articles were subjected to qualitative analysis. Existing evidence was assessed, and predictions on how outcomes may be applied to improve vitreoretinal surgery training were made. The risk of bias of each study was calculated in line with the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook. Results: Of the 124 articles identified, 7(5.6%) were shortlisted; 5(71.4%) established construct validity; 1(14.3%) discriminate validity and 1(14.3%) concurrent validity. Analysis disclosed minimal bias in the selected studies. Conclusion: Current evidence on simulation training in vitreoretinal surgery suggests it is a thoroughly validated training tool with minimal risk of bias. Vitreoretinal surgery training programmes should adopt and gauge the impact simulation training has on patient-related outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S106-S111
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Eyesi
  • Ophthalmic simulators
  • Surgical simulation
  • Training
  • Virtual reality
  • Vitreoretinal surgery


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