The Status of Biomedical Research in Some Developing Countries

Samiran Nundy, Atul Kakar, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN) have both defined developing nations but depend on the country itself to declare whether or not it is still not developed. The Human Development Index (HDI) is easier to understand and is a comparative measure of four parameters-life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for regions worldwide. Countries fall into four broad categories based on their HDI: very high (for developed countries), high and medium (for developing countries), and low (for least developed countries). Alternative classification exists based on the Gross Domestic Product which can classify countries into high- medium-, and low-income group. In this article however, will used the HDI criteria of 2019 for our discussion [1].

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHow to Practice Academic Medicine and Publish from Developing Countries? A Practical Guide
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9789811652486
ISBN (Print)9789811652479
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


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