Threats of global warming for Pakistan's agriculture: An evidence from Shigari Kalan Watershed, Skardu

Muhammad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Jamal Khan, Irshad Khan Abbasi, Muhammad Tariq, Jawad Ali, Melad Karim, Rizwan Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Many researchers argued that increasing global temperature will result in waning glacier based freshwater availability in future. River Indus fed by glaciers is critical for Pakistan as it is irrigating its 80% of agricultural land. Shigari Kalan watershed is one of the water sheds located in Skardu, Northern Pakistan, which also contributes to River Indus flowing to Pakistan. The aim of instant research is to evaluate the correlation amid temperature and the rate of glacier/snow melt which could have future implications for water availability in the River Indus flowing into Pakistan for which data pertaining to snow/glacier melt from the Shigari Kalan watershed was regularly monitored during the period spread over September 2015 to November 2015 and March 2016 to September 2016. Results showed that in the flow discharges of the stream during summer months was much higher with peak in June. The snow/glacier melt increases with air temperature from 12.5 C onwards and at 20C onwards it gets exponential rate. From the results it transpires that the effect of global warming in Himalaya and Karakorum Mountains has already set in. Any further increase in global temperature as predicted in many studies will further increase glacier melt rate which could result in extinction of glaciers in the long run. Such a situation will have serious implications for Skardu and water availability in River Indus and thus for Pakistan whose major water requirements are met from snow/glacier melt from the River Indus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-574
Number of pages6
JournalSarhad Journal of Agriculture
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Agriculture
  • Glacier
  • Global warming
  • Pakistan
  • Water


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