Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), along with thyroid ultrasound, is an important tool in evaluation of thyroid nodules that helps in further management of these patients in making a decision of surgical intervention vs follow-up. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category III of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) has risk of malignancy (ROM) ranging from 5% to 15%. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of AUS/FLUS in thyroid gland FNACs and the surgical outcomes of these cases. Methods: The integrated laboratory management system retrieved the thyroid FNACs from 2010 to 2018 and subsequent surgical pathology specimens. For the AUS/FLUS cases, data regarding patient demographics, cytology and histological diagnoses were recorded. The results were tabulated as the overall frequency of AUS/FLUS in thyroid FNACs, cytohistological correlation (benign and malignant) and ROM. Results: Over a period of 9 years, 256 (10.9%) cases out of 2342 thyroid FNACs were reported as AUS/FLUS at our institution. Mean age was 43.5 years. The majority (70.3%) of patients were female. Seventy-two of 104 resection specimens (69.2%) were reported as benign and 32 cases (30.7%) had malignant diagnosis. Upper-bound ROM was 30.7% (32 cases with malignant diagnosis out of 104 resection specimens). Lower-bound ROM was calculated as 12.5% (32 cases with malignant diagnosis out of 256 total AUS diagnosis). Conclusion: The AUS/FLUS category of thyroid cytology and associated ROM remain an evolving area. Individual institutions should monitor the frequency and include ROM in the dashboard indicators to remain within the recommended range.
- atypia of undetermined significance
- follicular lesion of undetermined significance
- risk of malignancy
- thyroid cytology