Tip-over injuries among children: Data from an urban emergency department of Karachi, Pakistan

Rubaba Naeem, Asrar Ali, Ahmed Raheem Buksh, Ayesha Quddusi, Uzma Rahim Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Most unintentional injuries among children occur in the home environment. Tip-overs, defined as incidents where heavy objects fall on children due to some type of interaction, are one of the reasons for injuries inside the home. This study aims to determine injury patterns and outcomes for child injuries resulting from tip-overs in the home environment as reported in the emergency department. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric (under 18 years) tip-overs injuries occurred in years 2010 to 2015 at the Aga Khan University Hospital. Furthermore, parents of injured children participated in phone interviews to provide information about the injury scene. File review and telephonic interviews were conducted in the year 2015 and 2016. Results: A total of 75 children visited the emergency department with tip-over injuries, out of which 55 (73%) were boys. The majority of incidents (75.5%) happened inside the home, and the most common places were the living room and bedroom (32% and 21% respectively). More than half (53%) of the children were not under adult supervision at the time of the incident and less than half (47%) of the household took safety measures after the incident. Tip-over injuries were common among 3-year-old children with decreasing frequency as children grew older. The most common causes of tip-overs were TV/TV trolley (32%), followed by furniture (28%), and wall and roof (23%). The most common sites of injuries were head (n = 33, 44%) and extremities (n = 33, 44%). A majority of the cases (n = 66, 88%) were admitted to the hospital from the emergency department, under care of both general (n = 51, 68%) and critical care units (n = 15, 20%). More than a quarter (n = 27, 36%) required at least one surgical procedure during their hospital stay. The median length of hospital stay was one days (interquartile range, IQR 1–5 days). There were two cases of mortality (3%). Conclusion: Most tip-over injuries among children were caused by TV, furniture, and TV trolleys. These injuries can be prevented with public education around home safety measures, such as mounting them on the wall.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110526
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Emergency department
  • Tip-over injuries, Child injury, Home hazard, Pakistan, LMICs, Children
  • Urban


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