This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effect of topical application of emollients on the incidence of invasive infection in preterm or low birth weight infants in low- or middle-income countries. Subgroup analyses are planned based on the following population groups:1. Trials where participants were from communities where more than 20% of mothers are HIV sero-positive at antenatal screening versus communities where maternal HIV infection was less prevalent.2. Trials where participants were predominantly (more than 80%) cared for within a health care facility versus trials where most infants were cared for at home.