Purpose of Review: This review focuses on recent evidence examining the role triglycerides (TG) and triglyceride-enriched lipoproteins (TGRL) play in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It also provides a succinct overview of current and future TG-lowering therapies for ASCVD risk reduction. Recent Findings: Epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have consistently shown that TGRL are strongly associated with ASCVD. REDUCE-IT demonstrated cardiovascular benefit with icosapent ethyl in high-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia on statin therapy. Polymorphisms in APOC3 and ANGPTL3 are associated with ASCVD and use of RNA-interfering therapies to target these proteins has shown TG lowering in early phase trials. Summary: TG and TGRL are causally associated with ASCVD. Lifestyle modifications and statin therapy can lower TG/TGRL and are considered first-line treatment for hypertriglyceridemia. Icosapent ethyl has been shown to reduce residual ASCVD risk in high-risk patients on maximally tolerated statins. Ongoing clinical trials will better define optimal therapy for patients on statins with residual hypertriglyceridemia.
- Angiopoietin 3
- Apolipoprotein C3
- Omega-3 fatty acids
- Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins