Validity of different dental age estimation methods in Pakistani orthodontic patients

Aisha Khoja, Mubassar Fida, Attiya Shaikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This research aims to evaluate the validity of Demirjians (1973), Nollas (1960) and Willems (2001) methods of dental age (DA) estimation in Pakistani orthodontic patients (8-16.9 years). It also addresses the validity of these methods in determining dental maturity across the gender and compares the difference between original Demirjian tables (based on French-Canadian standards) and Pakistani tables formulated by Sukhia et al. (2012). Orthopantomograms of 403 subjects (males = 176, females = 227) were examined for DA assessment by different methods. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests were used to determine significant differences between mean dental and chronological age among different age groups. Correlation between DA and CA were assessed by the Spearmans correlation (p = ≤0.05). Nollas method under-estimated the DA by 1.00 ± 1.54 in males and over-estimated by 0.21 ± 1.64 in females. DA was significantly advanced using Pakistani tables (males = 0.32 ± 1.17, females = 0.38 ± 1.33 years) and Willems method (males = 0.31 ± 1.09, females = 0.29 ± 0.48 years). DA correlated better with CA using Pakistani tables compared with the French-Canadian standards. Earlier dental maturation was reported in females compared with males using Demirjians and Nollas methods. Strong correlations were found between CA and DA according to all methods (p < 0.001). Overall, Willems method was identified as the most valid method for DA estimation in the Pakistani sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-292
Number of pages10
JournalAustralian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2015


  • Validity
  • dental age
  • forensic odontology
  • panoramic radiographs


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