What influences slum residents' choices of healthcare providers for common illnesses? Findings of a Discrete Choice Experiment in Ibadan, Nigeria

Olufunke Fayehun, Jason Madan, Abiola Oladejo, Omobowale Oni, Eme Owoaje, Motunrayo Ajisola, Richard Lilford, Akinyinka Omigbodun, Pauline Bakibinga, Caroline Kabaria, Ziraba Kasiira, Peter Kibe, Catherine Kyobutungi, Nelson Mbaya, Blessing Mberu, Shukri Mohammed, Anne Njeri, Lyagamula Kisia, Iqbal Azam, Romaina IqbalAhsana Nazish, Narjis Rizvi, Kehkashan Azeem, Syed Shifat Ahmed, Omar Rahman, Rita Yusuf, Nazratun Choudhury, Oladoyin Odubanjo, Mary Osuh, Olalekan Taiwo, Jo Sartori, Sam Watson, Peter Diggle, Navneet Aujla, Yen Fu Chen, Paramjit Gill, Frances Griffiths, Bronwyn Harris, Oyinlola Oyebode, Joao Porto De Albuquerque, Simon Smith, Ola Uthman, Ria Wilson, Godwin Yeboah, Grant Tregonning, Ji Eun Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Urban slum residents have access to a broad range of facilities of varying quality. The choices they make can significantly influence their health outcomes. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) are a widely-used health economic methodology for understanding how individuals make trade-offs between attributes of goods or services when choosing between them. We carried out a DCE to understand these trade-offs for residents of an urban slum in Ibadan, Nigeria. We conducted 48 in-depth interviews with slum residents to identify key attributes influencing their decision to access health care. We also developed three symptom scenarios worded to be consistent with, but not pathegonian of, malaria, cholera, and depression. This led to the design of a DCE involving eight attributes with 2-4 levels for each. A D-efficient design was created, and data was collected from 557 residents between May 2021 and July 2021. Conditional-logit models were fitted to these data initially. Mixed logit and latent class models were also fitted to explore preference heterogeneity. Conditional logit results suggested a substantial Willingness-to-pay (WTP) for attributes associated with quality. WTP estimates across scenarios 1/2/3 were N5282 / N6080 / N3715 for the government over private ownership, N2599 / N5827 / N2020 for seeing a doctor rather than an informal provider and N2196 / N5421 /N4987 for full drug availability over none. Mixed logit and latent class models indicated considerable preference heterogeneity, with the latter suggesting a substantial minority valuing private over government facilities. Higher income and educational attainment were predictive of membership of this minority. Our study suggests that slum residents value and are willing to pay for high-quality care regarding staff qualifications and drug availability. It further suggests substantial variation in the perception of private providers. Therefore, improved access to government facilities and initiatives to improve the quality of private providers are complementary strategies for improving overall care received.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0001664
JournalPLOS Global Public Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


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