Wolcott-Rallison syndrome: a case series of three patients

Fozia Memon, Muzna Arif, Salman Kirmani, Khadija N. Humayun

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: Neonatal diabetes is a rare disease with incidence estimated at 1 in 300,000 to 1 in 400,000 live births. Walcott-Rallison syndrome has been identified as the most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes in consanguineous families caused by mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 3 (EIF2AK3), characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes associated with liver dysfunction, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and developmental delay. We herein report 3 cases of genetically proven Wolcott-Rallison syndrome with variable phenotype presentation. Case series: All cases presented with high glucose levels and were treated with insulin. EIF2AK3 homozygous mutation was identified in all 3 on genetic analysis. Initial screening testing for associated comorbidities was normal, including X-ray examination, which did not show any signs of epiphyseal dysplasia in all cases. Case 2 and case 3 were both lost to follow-up and were later found to have expired at the ages of 18 months and 2 years, respectively, due to liver failure associated with intercurrent respiratory illness in hospitals in their native towns. Case one is now 2 years old on regular follow-up in paediatric Endocrine and neurology clinics and doing well so far. Conclusions: Morbidity, as well as mortality, is high among children with WRS neonatal diabetes. It is crucial to screen for gene mutation in patients with diabetes diagnosed before 6 months. Close therapeutic monitoring is recommended in WRS because of the risk of acute episodes of hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-240
Number of pages3
JournalPediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (WRS)
  • liver failure
  • permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM)
  • skeletal dysplasia


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